About bladder cancer
Bladder cancer is the most common malignant tumor in the urinary system, mainly in men, and the incidence is about 4 times that of women. The average age of onset is 65 years. In the new case, 75% are superficial (50-80% of patients have one or more relapses after treatment; 15-25% will develop invasive cancer. Therefore, patients with superficial bladder cancer need Pay close attention to recurrence and clinically recommend clinical cystoscopy or urine exfoliative cytology in patients with hematuria over 40 years of age. However, cystoscopy will cause unnecessary pain to the patient, and due to the stimulation of the bladder wall tumor, It leads to the expansion of malignant tumors. Tumor metastasis is not suitable for large-scale screening, but cytological examination is not sensitive enough. Fluorescence in situ hybridization detection of urine sediment cells has a strong advantage in early diagnosis and postoperative recurrence of bladder cancer.
The bladder cancer probe consists of two sets of probes (see above). The P16 gene region was marked with an orange dye, the centromere region of chromosome 17 (CEP17) was labeled with a green dye, the centromere region of chromosome 3 (CEP3) was marked with an orange dye, and chromosome 7 (CEP7) was marked with a green color. dye. The P16 gene marker region is located at 9p21.3 and the chromosomal centromere probe is labeled with a specific alpha satellite sequence.
The most common genetic alteration in urinary transitional epithelial cell carcinoma is the loss of chromosome 9 (eg, the p16 locus) or the complete loss of epithelial cells in the urinary system. Furthermore, the development of urinary transitional cell carcinoma is closely related to chromosomal instability, particularly aneuploidy of chromosomes 3, 7 and 17. FISH is a non-invasive test that detects the patient's urine exfoliated cells. If there are two or more abnormal indicators in the above four indicators, or one of the indicators is complex, it can basically be defined as urinary transitional epithelial cell carcinoma.
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