Introduction of several probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization
FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization) technology is an important tool for molecular diagnosis and has a wide range of applications in scientific research and clinical diagnosis. FISH detection uses a fluorophore-labeled DNA probe, and then in-situ hybridization of the labeled DNA probe with the sample DNA, and finally the fluorescence signal is counted under a fluorescence microscope as a basis for diagnosis. FISH has become the tool of choice for many disease diagnoses.
Probes are the key to the sensitivity and accuracy of FISH detection. The accuracy of the FISH test is derived from the design of the probe. Whether FISH can be applied to a certain field depends on whether it has a corresponding probe. Probes used for FISH detection must be highly specific and specifically recognize specific genes or specific fragments on the chromosome. Moreover, FISH probes must be able to withstand in situ hybridization without denaturation. The labeling of the fluorophore also directly affects the sensitivity of the assay and the manner in which the in situ hybridization results are detected.
A DNA fragment labeled with a fluorescent signal represents the entire sequence of one or several gene loci. It is mainly used for the localization of chromosomal DNA cloning sequences and the detection of target DNA sequence copy number and structural changes.
[Features] Small signal
1. Locate the DNA fragment;
2. Identify small deletions and duplications of chromosomes;
3. Abnormal diagnosis of chromosome number in interphase cells.
Second, centromere probe
Highly repeating sequence DNA, repeated hundreds to thousands of times, the target sequence is usually in the p11-q11 region of the chromosome and the heterochromatin region.
[Features] Strong signal
1. Marking chromosome recognition;
2. Abnormal detection of chromosome number;
3. Establish a qualified clinical diagnosis of cytogenetics research.
Third, chromosome painting probe
The dyeing probe is designed for a whole chromosome, and the dyeing probe is mainly used for the determination of chromosomal rearrangements and labeled chromosomes that cannot be determined by conventional band-forming techniques. The entire chromosome can be fluorescently labeled.
[Features] The results are easy to interpret. However, the entire chromosome-coated probe cannot resolve the translocation between the same chromosome arm and the chromosomal inversion.
1. Analysis of chromosome number and structure abnormalities;
2. Chromosome diagnosis and research of leukemia and other tumors.
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